Teleportation is the movement of objects from one place to another, more or less instantaneously, either by paranormal means or through technological artifice. The concept has been widely used in science fiction.
Similar is apport, an earlier word used to describe what today might be called teleportation; and bilocation, when something or someone described as being a magician is said to be able to occupy two places simultaneously. The word "teletransportation" (which simply expands Charles Fort's abbreviated term) was first employed by Derek Parfit as part of a thought exercise on identity.
The word was coined in 1931 by American writer Charles Fort to describe the strange disappearances and appearances of anomalies, which he suggested may be connected. He joined the Greek prefix tele- (meaning "distant") to the Latin verb portare (meaning "to carry"). Fort's first formal use of the word was in the second chapter of his 1931 book, Lo! "Mostly in this book I shall specialize upon indications that there exists a transportory force that I shall call Teleportation." Though, with his typical half-serious jokiness, Fort added, "I shall be accused of having assembled lies, yarns, hoaxes, and superstitions. To some degree I think so, myself. To some degree, I do not. I offer the data." Fort suggested that teleportation might explain various allegedly paranormal phenomena, though, typically, it's sometimes difficult to tell if Fort took his own "theory" seriously, or instead used it to point out what he saw as the inadequacy of mainstream science to account for strange phenomena.
One proposed means of teleportation is the transmission of data which is used to precisely reconstruct an object or organism at its destination. However, it would be impossible to travel from one point to another instantaneously; faster than light travel, as of today, is believed to be impossible. The use of this form of teleportation as a means of transport for humans still has considerable unresolved technical issues, such as recording the human body with sufficient accuracy to allow reproduction elsewhere, and whether destroying a human in one place and recreating a copy elsewhere would provide a sufficient experience of continuity of existence. Believers in the supernatural might wonder if the soul is recopied or destroyed, and might even consider it murder. Likewise, someone with a materialistic view of the world might also see the disintegration of a given corpus as the killing of a human being. The reassembled human might be considered a different sentience with the same memories as the original, as could be easily proved by constructing not just one, but several copies of the original and interrogating each as to the perceived uniqueness of each. Each copy constructed using merely descriptive data, but not matter, transmitted from the origin and new matter already at the destination point would consider itself to be the true continuation of the original and yet this could not logically be true; moreover, because each copy constructed via this data-only method would be made of new matter that already existed at the destination, there would be no way, even in principle, of distinguishing the original from the copies. Many of the relevant questions are shared with the concept of mind transfer. It is interesting to note, however, that quantum mechanics forbids one from making a wholly exact copy of an object: see no-cloning theorem and Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
It is not clear if duplication of a human would require reproduction of the exact quantum state, which necessarily destroys the original, or whether macroscopic measurements would suffice. In the non-destructive version, hypothetically a new copy of the individual is created with each teleportation, with only the copy subjectively experiencing the teleportation. Technology of this type would have many other applications, such as virtual medicine (manipulating the stored data to create a copy better, or perhaps radically different, than the original), a sort of suspended animation (by creating a copy many years after the information was stored), or backup copies (creating a copy from recently stored information if the original was involved in a mishap.)
Dimensional teleportation is a mechanism often shown in fictional works, particularly in fantasy and comic books. It involves the subject exiting one physical universe or plane of existence, then re-entering it at a different location. This method is rarely seriously considered by the scientific community, as the currently predominant theories about parallel universes assume that physical travel is not possible between them.
Another form of teleportation common in science fiction (and seen in The Culture novels and The Terminator series of films) sends the subject through a wormhole or similar phenomenon, allowing transit faster than light while avoiding the problems posed by the uncertainty principle and potential signal interference. In both of the examples above, this form of teleportation is known as "Displacement" or "Topological shortcut" (Scientific American) Template:Fact which implies that this kind of teleportation may be similar in mechanism to time travelTemplate:Fact.
Displacement teleporters would eliminate many probable objections to teleportation on religious or philosophical grounds, as they preserve the original subject intact — and thus continuity of existence. What does this mean? Teleportation by means of the mind or innate personal abilities are sometimes referred to as p-Teleportation, "psychoportation", or "jaunting"; named after the fictional scientist (Jaunte) who discovered it in The Stars My Destination (originally titled Tiger! Tiger!), a science fiction novel by Alfred Bester. This method could hypothetically work through any of the mechanisms proposed above, but are usually portrayed in fiction as displacement-type or dimensional teleportation to simplify its use in the story.
- Teleportation in fiction
- Astral projection — a controversial interpretation of out-of-body experiences.
- Interstellar teleporter — a hypothetical technology appearing in science fiction
- Psychokinesis — The production or control of motion, especially in inanimate and remote objects, purportedly by the exercise of psychic powers.
- Jumpgate — a portal for interstellar transportation of spaceships.
- Jump Scar (JUMPER); aftermath of a Jump(teleportation) through which another Jumper can teleport.
- Kefitzat Haderech, Hebrew notion of supernatural transportation.
- Linking room — a collection of portals conveniently gathered together in one location; sometimes visualized as a vast, sometimes infinite, hallway with doors running the entire length.
- Paranormal vanishing — an unexplained disappearance of objects
- Philadelphia Experiment — a supposed secret experiment conducted by the U.S. Navy at the Philadelphia Naval Yards.
- Portal (fiction) — a magical or technological doorway that connects two distant locations.
- Stargate — a fictional portal for interstellar transportation to another stargate through a wormhole created between the gates from the sci-fi tv-show Stargate. There were also other kinds of teleportation devices in the series.
- Telefragging — a technique used in many video games, particularly first-person shooters, where a player teleports to the exact position of another, usually causing the death of the latter.
- Transporter (Star Trek) — a fictional technology that transports matter from one location to another with an intermediate state of the matter as energy.
- Tay al-Ard — the concept of Teleportation in Islamic philosophy.
- Wormhole — a hypothetical topological feature of spacetime that is essentially a 'shortcut' through space and time.
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- Graham, Danielle (2006, January 20). Experimental data demonstrating augmentation of ambient gravitational and geomagnetic fields. American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, 813, 1256-1263.
- Hole teleportation - a hypothetical teleportation of objects throughout our universe by using the geometrical properties of spacetime. If an object is sent “out of the universe”, then the object can appear at random at any spacetime point in the universe.
- United States Patent Application: 0060071122, application for a patent for a 'Full body Teleportation System'
- Article on teleportation
- An example of a Teleportation device, component 1: matter displacement apparatus
- An example of a Teleportation device, component 2: location selectorcs:Teleportace
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